Rules of construction Section 1. Constitutional text shall be construed only on historical evidence of the meaning and understanding of the terms for, first, their ratifiers, and second, their framers. Commerce among the states shall not include sales or leases within a state.
On all constitutional issues precedents may only be regarded as persuasive and never binding, and binding stare decisis shall not be used as a rule of construction.
If Congress or any state or local legislative body shall fail to provide for organizing, training, or equipping militia units, persons shall not be impeded from organizing, training, and equipping themselves independently.
Neither House may have or establish any rule which prevents a majority from proceeding with a vote. Clarification of "bill of attainder" A bill of attainder shall consist of any legislative disablement of an immunity, either for an individual, group, or the people in general, without proof beyond a reasonable doubt, decided by a jury in each individual case, that he or she has committed a crime or is dangerously incompetent.
The court shall hold a hearing within five days of receipt of the response from the respondent, and ahead of any other business before the court except another prerogative writ. Congress shall by law determine a runoff procedure to handle the case in which no pair of candidates has a majority, provided that this procedure is consistent with all of the preceding clauses of this section, and that any runoff election includes the two pairs of candidates who received the most votes.
Article V is repealed. Letters of marque and reprisal make the person to whom they are issued a state actor, and under a declaration of war all citizens are to be regarded as state actors with respect to the foreign state defined in the declaration.
Those who may engage in militia shall have any weapons in common use by regular military, subject only to the directives of local elected unit commanders during operations while called up.
Any person may file, without prior consent of any court, as demandant, in the name of the people, in a court of competent jurisdiction, a writ of quo warranto, habeas corpus, prohibito, mandamus, procedendo, certiorari, scire facias, or other prerogative writ, including a demurral, and upon service of notice to respondent, respondent shall have three days, and not more than 20 days with cause, to prove his authority to do or not do what the writ demands.
On a writ of habeas corpus the respondent must produce the individual held regardless of the legal or factual issues, and failure to do so, unless the medical condition of the subject requires otherwise, shall result in immediate release.
Clean, more complete list of constitutional rights. This provision applies to all civil or criminal cases, national, state, or local. All citizens and would-be citizens have the legal duty to defend the constitutions of the United States and their state, and the members of society, from any threat to their rights, privileges, or immunities, in response to a call-up by any person aware of a credible threat.
An amendment may be proposed by a majority vote of both houses of Congress, provided that no Amendment Convention is active. The power of the Vice President of the United States to serve as the President of the Senate and to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate is repealed.
Any call-up that does not require everyone to respond shall select those required by sortition. The order granting the relief demanded shall issue by default if a hearing is not held or a decision not made.In addition, as ensured by the First Amendment, all American citizens are free to petition Congress or their state legislatures to amend the Constitution.
To be approved, the amending resolution must be passed by a two-thirds supermajority vote in both the House and the Senate. Proposed Amendments. The article provides for two methods for the proposal and two methods for the ratification of an amendment.
An amendment may be proposed by a two-thirds vote of the House of Representatives and the Senate or a national convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures.
The latter procedure. Whenever the legislatures or conventions called by the legislatures of two-thirds of the states shall adopt an identical proposal for an amendment to this Constitution within a four-year period, such proposal shall be submitted to the legislatures of all the states, and the proposal shall be deemed ratified if the state legislatures, or state conventions called by the legislatures, of three-fourths of the states shall ratify it.
How to Write a Constitution Uploaded by TanUeiHorng A constitution is a document that provides the rules on how an organization of people (e.g., a small club, a university group, or even a group as large as a country or state) runs its affair.
None of the 27 amendments to the Constitution have been proposed by constitutional convention. The Congress proposes an amendment in the form of a joint resolution. Since the President does not have a constitutional role in the amendment process, the joint resolution does not go to the White House for signature or approval.
Full Text; Simulations. Simulation (short) Simulation (long) Article V is inoperative on the proposal and ratification of this amendment. Within one year of the ratification of this amendment, every citizen of the United States shall be the citizen of a State. Section 6.Download