He was helped by a jury - that included three Farynors - and was hanged at Tyburn. The Spanish Ambassador opened his house to all foreigners in fear of their lives - Protestant Dutch as well as Catholic French - as religious bigotry and xenophobia, born in the Reformation and raised by the Gunpowder Plot, surfaced again.
His colleagues claimed he was unbalanced and the details of his confession changed as flaws were continually unearthed. A scapegoat was needed: It would prove as equally efficient as fire in taking lives.
At the same time, the wind slackened and changed direction, turning south and blowing the fire onto itself and into the river. On Wednesday morning the fire reached a brick wall - literally - at Middle Temple and at Fetter Lane.
He declared that the fire had not been started by foreign powers or subversives, but had been an act of God. Workers took the opportunity to pull down more buildings and widen the break. This marked the height of the inferno. The family fled across the nearby roofs, leaving only a maid, too scared to run, who soon became the first of the four listed casualties of the fire.
This, combined with the dry, dusty air, was known to be particularly effective in carrying plague. Yet by dawn London Bridge was burning: Print this page Introduction Late summer, With the country also at war with the French and Dutch, paranoid xenophobia - a familiar English trait of the period - was rife.
By the following dawn, the fire was raging north and west, and panic reigned. But the flames continued relentlessly, devouring Gracechurch Street, Lombard Street, the Royal Exchange, and heading towards the wealthy area of Cheapside.
Yet with Farynor declaring - as expected - that his ovens had been completely extinguished on the night in question, the committee was as widely believed as the Warren Report, and the cause of the fire became the grassy knoll of late seventeenth century conspiracy theorists.
Top The aftermath By Thursday the fire was effectively extinguished, having destroyed acres of the City - from the Tower in the East to Fleet Street and Fetter Lane in the West - and burning around 13, houses, 84 churches and 44 company halls.
Following decades of political and religious upheaval, the restoration in of the Protestant Charles II ensured that suspicion lingered around republicans and Catholics alike.
In AprilCharles had warned the Lord Mayor of London of the danger caused by the narrow streets and overhanging timber houses. Yet the greatest fear among Londoners was not fire. Hysteria had raged as fiercely as the flames, as frightened fingers fell on foreigners. Although demolition began to take effect in the east, in the west the fire had destroyed Newgate and Ludgate prisons, and was travelling along Fleet Street towards Chancery Lane.
London was an emotional and physical tinderbox. Although Charles II had returned to Whitehall in FebruaryLondon remained unsafe, with death carts still commonplace. By the end of Sunday the fire had begun to travel against the wind, towards the Tower, and Pepys had begun to pack.
In the north, it was being checked at Smithfield and Holborn Bridge, and the Mayor, finally useful, was directing demolition in Cripplegate. Within a few hours the Cathedral was a ruin. An inferno caused by a forgetful baker, fuelled by a strong wind and indecisive leadership, was blamed on Catholics for over years.
Top The Parliamentary investigation At the end of September, a Parliamentary Committee was appointed to investigate the fire. It did so again: Although Charles II immediately ordered Bloodworth to destroy as many houses as necessary to contain the fire, early efforts to create firebreaks were overcome by the strength of the wind, which enabled the fire to jump gaps of even twenty houses.
This caught fire, soon followed by the timber roof beams. The wait was not a long one. What worried inhabitants most was the strong east wind. During the investigation a French Protestant watchmaker, Robert Hubert, confessed to having deliberately started the fire at the bakery with 23 conspirators.
Furthermore, a long, hot summer had left London dry and drought had depleted water reserves. Plague had killed over 68, people in the previous two years. The Duke of York took control of efforts to stop the fire, with militias summoned from neighbouring counties to help the fight, and stop looting.
The lead roof melted and flowed down Ludgate Hill, and stones exploded from the building. With only narrow streets dividing wooden buildings, the fire took hold rapidly, and within an hour the Mayor, Sir Thomas Bloodworth, had been woken with the news.
Samuel Pepys lived nearby and on Sunday morning walked to the Tower of London.Mar 29, · Introduction. Late summer, London was an emotional and physical tinderbox.
Following decades of political and religious upheaval, the restoration in .Download